Thursday, May 21, 2020
When it comes to texts such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Hebrew Bible, and The Odyssey, symbolism plays a major role in understanding a piece of literatureÃ¢â¬â¢s true intentions. This would explain the abundance of distinct character features, exaggerated scenarios, and countless approaches to new, bigger problems in these tales. But one of the most favored approaches to symbolism and interpretations seems to be through the way of dreams. Due to their unpredictable nature, dreams allow authors to take complete, creative control over what to convey. Consequently, dreams are prominent in regards to explanations and insights. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh suffers through several nightmares in which Enkidu insists are nothing bad. Later, Enkidu also succumbs to terrible nightmares after falling ill. He dreams about the underworld and its appalling, evil essence. This, in turn, makes Gilgamesh uneasy and actually provokes him to obtain immortality in the first place. On the oth er hand, in the Hebrew Bible, Jacob - grandson of Abraham and son of Isaac and Rebecca - dreams that the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s messengers were ascending and descending a stairway between Heaven and Earth. In this dream, the Lord approaches Jacob and tells him that the land in which he is standing will be his and his offspringÃ¢â¬â¢s. After being told that the Lord will be with him as he travels back home, Jacob woke up and named the land in which he slept Bethel. Jacob vowed to acknowledge the Lord as his own God as longShow MoreRelatedThe Epic Of Gilgamesh And The Odyssey1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesliterary pieces. In both the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Odyssey, water is used as a symbol that represents complex ideas, and it plays a significant role throughout both literary pieces. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, water is mainly used to symbolize life and death as well as rebirth or baptism. In several of GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams water is used as a symbol that represents life. An example of this is when Gilgamesh and Enkidu journey into the forest to kill Humbaba. In one dream Gilgamesh dreams that Enkidu andRead MoreThe Symbolism of Water1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Symbolism of Water Many works of literature use symbols to represent abstract ideas. One symbol that is commonly used is water. Water is a viable symbol because it is versatile. It can be used to represent many different ideals because water in itself is ever changing. Water is used in many works to represent such ideals as death, life, love, betrayal, purity, holiness, and so on. Giglamesh, the Old Testament, Egyptian Poetry, and The Odyssey all have symbolized water to represent an ideaRead MoreCharles Baudelaire And Victor Hugo976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe loss of some entity. The modern era had the freedom to elaborate the same escape through speculative fiction and other genres, accompanied by the two massive world mars, literature changed drastically in various fields. In poetry and drama, symbolism came out to be the literal tool of diplomatic announcement of the problems that surrounded the masses. After the world wars, literature had become a very powerful tool of exclaiming emotional relevance and many attributes of life to the whole worldRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Lien 2038 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesvillageÃ¢â¬â¢s name: Ã¢â¬Å"Lien.Ã¢â¬ This word is Vietnamese for Ã¢â¬Å"lotus,Ã¢â¬ which is a water flower similar to a water lily. This refers to the country of the Lotus-Eaters, which was a stop the hero Odysseus made along his journey back to his homeland in the epic poem, The Odyssey. In the original story, OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage is hindered when he stops in the country of the Lotus-Eaters and some of his crewmen are nearly trapped, for Ã¢â¬Å"any of them who ate the honey-sweet fruit of the lotus was unwilling to take any messageRead MoreLet Majorship English4572 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesfeeling is expressed in this line Ã¢â¬Å"My heart leaps up when I behold a rainbow in the skyÃ¢â¬ ? A. Surprise C. Fear B. Happiness D. Anger 3. What is ChekhovÃ¢â¬â¢s most recognizable achievement in his short stories? A. His cryptic use of symbolism B. His attention to the inner lives of his characters C. His references to biblical scriptures D. His use of allegory 4. In the Iliad, whose death brought Achilles much sorrow and grief? A. Patroclus C. Nestor B. Thesthor
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Vietnam War started on the first day of November in 1955. The main opponents were the United States and South Vietnam against North Vietnam and the Vietcong. The Americans wanted to contain communism in fear of it spreading to other countries while the North Vietnamese wanted to unite both parts of Vietnam. At first, the Americans only trained South Vietnamese troops to do all of the fighting while the North Vietnamese employed the Vietcong to help their military take over South Vietnam. Despite having a successful military campaign, the United States lost the Vietnam War politically. According to Young (1995), the American anti-war movement helped cause the United States to lose the Vietnam War. Young (1995) also supports this by stating that Ã¢â¬Å"America lost because of its democracy.Ã¢â¬ A main reason behind the warÃ¢â¬â¢s unpopularity is that it was the first uncensored war and was covered by the media. At first the American public was split over the war, but eventuall y shifted to disapproval. The media showed violent images and the use of napalm which was not liked at all. The Pentagon Papers were also used by the media to prove that the government was lying to the public about the war. Trust in the government decreased even more when Nixon resigned due to the Watergate Scandal and according to Young (1995), NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s resignation assured the North Vietnamese that they would win the Vietnam War. Another cause of the American anti-war movement was that it took much longer thanShow MoreRelatedThe Vietnam War Was An Expensive And Fatal Conflict Between The North And South Vietnam1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Vietnam War was an expensive and fatal conflict between the North and South Vietnam regions. The communist government from the north and their southern allies, the Viet Cong, were heavily against South Vietnam and their benevolent allies, the United States. The main purpose of the Vietnam War was to reassemble the country of Vietnam under the rule of communism. From the perspective of the Viet Cong, the conflict against the South and United States seemed as a colonial strife. During this timeRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement, Woodstock, Vietnam War, And South Africa853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWho knew how powerful the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s would be? You had the civil rights movement, Woodstock, Vietnam War, and an explosion in rock and roll, as well as soul? Exactly, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just in America. In Africa, countries were gaining freedom and independence. By 1980 the British, French, Italians, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch were being conquered and most of Africa had claimed independence as countries, all the while apartheid was still going on. Even with the riots between warring states, werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enoughRead MoreU.s. Military And Political Relations With Vietnam1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrelations with Vietnam today help think about why the U.S supported South Vietnam and participated in the Vietnam War and how the relationship turned into the way it is today. The Vietnam War started on November 1, 1955 and lasted until April 30, 1975. This war involved many significant leaders such as Richard Nixon, Lyndon B Johnson, John F Kennedy, Ho Chi Minh and many others. North Vietnam leaders had a great impact on the war by organizing many guerrillas and offensives while the South Vietnam leadersRead MoreVietnam And The Vietnam War848 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseverything. The Vietnam War changed a lot of people all around the world. The Vietnam War was between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The Vietnam War was a very bloody and violent war. The war was a long and costly-armed conflict. This war changed Vietnam and its citizens forever. During the Vietnam War, North Vietnam and South Vietnam both had received help from other countries. South Vietnam worked with the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand. North Vietnam worked withRead MoreGeorge HerringS Article The Legacy Of Vietnam Talks1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGeorge Herring s article The legacy of Vietnam talks about the military clash between the communist North Vietnam, backed by its allies and the government of South Vietnam, backed by the United States and other countries that are anti-communist that happened in Vietnam during Richard Nixon s presidency. The Vietnam War was a terrible war, especially for Vietnamese because a millions of them died during the war. The author not just describes the war itself; he also analyzes the killing and theRead MoreThe Vietnam War Was A Significant Moment For Canada921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Vietnam War was a historically significant moment for Canada which followed the First and Second Wo rld War. This was due to CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s large involvement in helping the South of Vietnam in their war efforts. Canada plays a large roll in this war costs and their manufacturing for war materials. One must first know how the war began before understanding how Canada contributed. Although the start of the Vietnam War had nothing to do with Canada, later events in the war were related to CanadaRead More Vietnamization (real Version) Essay979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Vietnam Controversy nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;ItÃ¢â¬â¢s January 27th, 1973 and the Vietnam War is over. Peace agreements were signed in Paris by the South Vietnam Communist forces, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the United States. The meeting lasted for several hours and in that time they agreed on many objectives, including: that U.S. troops would gradually withdraw from Vietnam and all prisoners of war would be released, South Vietnam had the right to choose their own future (whether or notRead MoreThe Battle Of Dien Bien Phu1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBien Phu To Vietnam War Ã¢â¬Å"It will be a war between an elephant and a tiger. If the tiger stand still, the elephant will crush him. But the tiger will never stand still. It will leap upon the elephantÃ¢â¬â¢s back, ripping out huge chunks of flesh and then will disappear back again into the dark jungle and slowly the elephant will blead to deathÃ¢â¬ (PeriscopeFilm, 1962). After World War II, the world experiences one of the longest wars that have ever occurred in the twentieth century, Vietnam War which lastedRead MoreThe American Role During The Vietnam War Still Sparks Much Debate Today1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Vietnam War still sparks much debate today. There is a sharp focus on the Americans role in the Vietnam War because of the tragic end for the South Vietnamese. The United States faced much criticism world wide through literature during the war that continued after the war ended in 1975. The American governments reasoning for getting involved was to prevent the spread of communism in South Vietnam and to essentially prevent the domino effect. South Vietnam had no hope of winning a civil war againstRead MoreThe Vietnam War Of Vietnam952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswords that describe the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War had 240 days of combat in one year. World War II had forty days of combat in four years(Interesting Facts). That statistic shows h ow rough the Vietnam War was. The fighting was constant between the two sides. This war was fought over politics and had many gruesome battles. Before the Vietnam war, Vietnam was in a revolution because they did not want to be ruled by France. Vietnam wanted to be independent right after World War II ended in 1945. Japan
Introduction Subjectivity is the starting point of HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s statement. His lectures on aesthetics give the significance of art within his philosophy while the German period of romanticism is being explained and critiqued. Recent theorists such as Theodor Adorno, Paul Guyer and Arthur Danto based their views on aesthetics from HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook on art. We will write a custom essay sample on Aesthetics and cultural theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now All support that Hegelian idealism was introduced with a poor consequence of personal subjectivity. The idealistic philosophers argued that only our conscience has real status and that the physical world is only a product of consciousness. The idealism (or utopianism) is closely linked to the religion either directly or indirectly and all philosophies based on this term are supporting the existence of a superior power that can not be interlinked with humanÃ¢â¬â¢s capability. The most effective way of understanding the whole concept of idealism is to study directly the forefather of all theorists. Plato in his book, Ã¢â¬ËThe RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢, gives an allegory (the Ã¢â¬ËcaveÃ¢â¬â¢) to represent idealism in itÃ¢â¬â¢s simpler form. He describes men sitting in a dark cave who are chained in such a way that they can look in only one direction. Few meters behind them, light comes out of a fire which casts their shadows towards a wall they cannot see. Plato asks us to imagine those men in that specific position for their entire life. Having no experience of anything else, these men understand what they have experienced before reality is being represented to them. The philosopher continues with his metaphor and asks us to visualise that those prisoners got unchained and faced the existence of the fire and the shadows. They begin to have a sense of the environment they lived in. The allegory ends, with Plato explaining that those men in the cave are us. As a consequence, we experience the world with our only five senses, but as a matter of fact Ã¢â¬Ëour worldÃ¢â¬â¢ is made with images and three-dimensional shadows. He claims that our mind has absoluteness perfection (Ã¢â¬Ëabsolute mindÃ¢â¬â¢). As we look into sun and turn away for protecting our eyes, thats how we turn back into the cave, in our safe place of sense perception. Now, modern idealism puts forward a cognitive human activity and attributes to a self-determined reality, such as the Ã¢â¬Ëabsolute truthÃ¢â¬â¢ and creativity. Two German recent idealism theorists, J. G. Fichte and Friedrich von Schelling, which came to a climax in an absolute idealism of Hegel, started giving their explanation with a refutation of the uncertain thing-in-itself. However, Hegel formulated a complete structure of thought about art and the world. Most importantly, he hold up that reality should be logical, so that itÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual framework will be shown by our own thoughts. He did not think that symbolic, so by extension, conceptual art, has the ability to surpass the high nature of classical Greek art and its representational/imitative abilities. This is because, as he explains, since symbolisms, depend on the knowledge of man of the earth and society, and because, we can never know everything about the human psyche, trying to represent it with symbolisms, is just not enough. Hence, imitative art, which is what classical Greek sculptures, are of a much higher regard to Hegel, than symbolic art. He describes it as Ã¢â¬Ëthe sensuous presentation of ideasÃ¢â¬â¢. It is in the communication of ideas excluding the connection between our reason and our sensory faculty and is distinctive successful. Modern aesthetic theorists turn first and f oremost to Kant, an 18th century German philosopher, and the historical convention of German romanticism to utilize the role of Ã¢â¬ËpessimisticÃ¢â¬â¢ art. Hegelian view comes to support that art does more than sabotage the non?aesthetic. Thus, modern art can preferable take in contemporary artistic practices. Both theorists connect that art is superior to the external world, both opposed to appetite and enjoyment. Hegel gives his philosophy on art that is, as a whole, his main philosophical system. For us, to comprehend his philosophy of art we must understand his philosophy as a whole. Similar with AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking, Hegel believes that the investigation of logic could lead to a key system of reality. Thus, logic is being characterised as dialectical. Poetry for Hegel seem not to have something physical as a sculpture. In that way, music according to him is the least spiritual form of art. On the other hand, Kant stated as an important matter that a generic explanation of the world could lead to an opposite observation. But Hegel explained that those two notions could be integrated by a move to a different way of thinking. Consequently, our mind moves from thesis, to antithesis, to synthesis. This could be seen in history, nature and cultural progress. All the thinking consists by the idea (thesis), which antithesis is nature, while combining (synthesis) the two it forms t he spirit. This could also be named as the Ã¢â¬ËabsoluteÃ¢â¬â¢ itself and is examined in more detail in HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËPhenomenology of SpiritÃ¢â¬â¢ as a transformation from subjective to objective to the absolute spirit. He is examining the organised structures in humanity giving absolute freedom and self determination to be essential. Those vitals principles include the practice of right, having a family and being part of a civil society (state). The most developed and sufficient perception of spirit is achieved by philosophy. It provides a conceptual understanding of the nature of reason while it describes why reason must take the form of time, space, life, matter and self-conscious spirit. In Christianity, however, the procedure which the Ã¢â¬ËideaÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËreasonÃ¢â¬â¢ turns into self-conscious spirit is symbolised with metaphors and images as the procedure where God turns into spirit lies within humans. This is the process we place our belief and faith rather our notion of understanding. Hegel supports that humans cannot live with just the hypothesis of things but also need to trust the truth. He asserts that Ã¢â¬Ëis in religion that a nation defines what is considers to be trueÃ ¢â¬â¢. According to Hegel, art is different from religion or philosophy and itÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is the formation of beautiful objects in which aesthetically pleasing indication is coming through. Therefore, the main target of art is not impersonate nature but to give us the opportunity to look at images being made by non-materialistic freedom. In other words, art exists not just for the purpose of having Ã¢â¬ËartÃ¢â¬â¢ but for beauty. This union of freedom and beauty from Hegel shows his obligation to two other theorists, Schiller and Kant. Kant goes further to analyse that our understanding of beauty is a form of freedom. He explains, by judging an object or a piece of art as beautiful, we are discernmenting about a thing. By this we are declaring that the Ã¢â¬ËthingÃ¢â¬â¢ or object has an effect on us, thus everyone will have the same effect. This results to a comprehension and vision in Ã¢â¬Ëfree playÃ¢â¬â¢ with each other, and it is this delight that comes from the Ã¢â¬Ëfree playÃ¢â¬â¢ that guides us to our judgment if something is nice or not. Schiller comes in contrast with Kant which explains beauty as a belonging of the object itself. He stress that freedom is independent from our mind (Kant describes as Ã¢â¬ËnoumenaÃ¢â¬â¢). Ã¢â¬ËFreedom in appearance, autonomy in appearance [Ã¢â¬ ¦] that the object appears as free, not that it really is soÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ However, in HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s view on beauty, is being described as the complete manifestation of freedom. It can be seen or sound like a sensory expression. Hegel moves a step further to explain that beauty can be created by nature but as he calls a Ã¢â¬ËsensuousÃ¢â¬â¢ beautyÃ¢â¬â¢ it can only be found through art which can be produced by people. For him, beauty has symmetrical qualities. It has elements that are not organised in a framework but are joined organically. We were told, as he explains, that the Greek outline is beautiful, because the nose is flawless under the forehead while the Roman human profile has more sharper angles between them. Nevertheless, beautyÃ¢â¬â¢s importance is not only the shape but also the content. Modern art-theorists disagree with HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of beauty and art. They claim that art can include any content. This content is described in religion as God, then a beautiful art could be seen as angelic. Nonetheless, Hegel insists that Godly art is through a humankind form as freedom. He understands that piece of art could consists of nature such as plants or animals but he thinks that art is responsible to show the angelic form, as mentioned before. Only a human can represent reason and spirit through colors and sounds. Art, in HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, is metaphorical. Not because it always comes to copy what is in nature, but the main motivation of art is to communicate and represent what he explained as a Ã¢â¬Ëfree spiritÃ¢â¬â¢. It can mostly be attained throughout humans and images. Particular, art exist to remind our mind that us, as human beings, have freedom and try not to forget the truth within ourselves. It is the only way the Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom of spiritÃ¢â¬â¢ could be seen in itÃ¢â¬â¢s simplest form. The contradiction with art is that it links truth all through romanticised images made by someone. As mentioned before, according to Hegel, this spirit and beauty could be found through ancient Greek sculptures (Aeschylus, Praxiteles, Phidias and Sophocles). The German philosopher explains that are a lot of things we can be named as Ã¢â¬ËartÃ¢â¬â¢, such as the Greek sculptures mentioned before, Shakespearian plays, but not everything is entitled to be called like that. This is because not everything represent what Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ art really is. He sets some standards that a piece of work has to meet in order to be beautiful art. References BBC magazine, A Point of View: Why are museums so uninspiring(London, BBC, 2011) [accessed 11 mar 2011] Hegel G. W. F., HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s Phenomenology of Spirit, (Oxford: University Press, 1977) Hegel G. W. F., HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s Aesthetics: Lectures on fine art, Know, vol.1 (Oxford: University Press, 2010) Hegel G. W. F., Hegel: Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: Volume II: Determinate Religion: Determinate Religion v. 2 (Oxford: University Press, 2007) Immanuel Kant, Ã¢â¬ËKant: Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: And Other WritingsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cambridge, University Press, 2004) Jason M, Miller, Ã¢â¬ËResearch ProposalÃ¢â¬â¢ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Notre Dame, 2004), p.2 Robin, Waterfield, Ã¢â¬ËPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢ (Oxford: University Press, 2008) Stephen, Houlgate, Ã¢â¬ËHegelÃ¢â¬â¢s aestheticsÃ¢â¬â¢, (The Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy, 2009) [accessed 15 Mar 2011] Schiller, Friedrich, Ã¢â¬ËKallias or Concerning Beauty: Letters to Gottfried KornerÃ¢â¬ , in Classical and Romantic German AestheticsÃ¢â¬â¢, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) How to cite Aesthetics and cultural theory, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Native America Federal Policies from the 1800s to 2000 Essay Adriana Calderon April 28, 2011 Ethnic Study 1 Native America Federal Policies from the 1800s to 2000 The new US Government was careful not to antagonize the Indians and sought to treat them with mutual respect. This is evidenced in early treaties where the term Ã¢â¬Å"Red BrothersÃ¢â¬ was used to convey this sentiment of equality. By 1800 interaction between the Indian and white settlers had become quite common through trade. Many Indians traded for household goods, traps and tools. The US became concerned about the cultural differences and sought to improve the Indian station in life by providing education. The United States no longer feared the Indian but rather took a paternal position toward the Indians and the treaty language reflected this when the Indian was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"Our Red Children. Ã¢â¬ The US Constitution via Article I section gives the Federal Government dominant power over states in policy making; the congress shall have the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes. The Constitution further enumerates these powers denied to the states in Article I section x. The state of Georgia challenged the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s power over states rights, a precursor to the Civil War, when it challenged the trust relationship and the autonomy of the Cherokee. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall in three decisions (Marshall Trilogy) upheld the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ federal power, defined the responsibility of the doctrine of federal trust, and clarified the sovereignty of Indian nations: Johnson v McIntosh 1823, Cherokee v Georgia 1831, Worcester v Georgia 1832. The new government wanted to keep peace with the Indians and used trade as its device. We will write a custom essay sample on Native America Federal Policies from the 1800s to 2000 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Native America Federal Policies from the 1800s to 2000 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Native America Federal Policies from the 1800s to 2000 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It was hoped that the interaction between the white settlers and Indians would create a dependence of the Indian for white goods and soothe the tensions of the white settlers through familiarity via social interaction. President George Washington proposed government regulated and operated trading houses. The Government Trading Act of April 18, 1796 was established for carrying on a liberal trade with the several Indian nations, within the limits of the United States. This act restricted trade exclusively through government agents; anyone else was subject to fines. It as hoped independent and illegal trade with the Indians would be unprofitable and a deterrent to independent and foreign white traders as the Government Trading Houses were very competitive. The new government placed Indian affairs under the jurisdiction of the War Department. In this way the government could police, protect, and regulate trade and commerce with the Indian tribes. The treaties, doctrines, and Congression al acts affected the lives of Indian tribes within the limits of the United States. Many of the Cherokee in Georgia assimilated to the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life. Chief William McIntosh, an extreme example, was a slave holding plantation owner who lived in a two story Federalist style mansion. The trading houses allowed many Indians such as the Cherokee and Seminole Creek to acquire such things as colorful cloth that was permanently incorporated into their dress. Household cooking utensils, hunting rifles, along with the technology for logging and agriculture was attractive to many Indians and they soon settled into log cabins and communities that mirrored many white settlements. Other Indians preferred to remain hunters and gathers and fur trade became their means of barter. The new country was difficult to police and fraud prospered. Both government and non-government trading houses started the illegal trade in liquor. The interaction between the white man and Indian introduced new words and technologies into each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. The white man absorbed the snowshoe, canoe, tobacco, and corn whereas the Indian absorbed the rifle, the kettle, and many household items into their culture. Some Indians adopted Christianity. The Civilization Fund Act (March 3, 1819) was enacted when The United States government became increasingly concerned with the education of the Indian tribes in contact with white settlements and encourage activities of benevolent societies in providing schools for the Indians and authorized an annual Ã¢â¬Ëcivilization fundÃ¢â¬â¢ to stimulate and promote this work. With many Indians assimilating into the white culture a change in white attitude toward the Indian heralded a new era of Indian relations. As a result of the War of 1812 the government trading houses suffered economically and private trading interests succeeded in bringing about the abolition of this institution via an act of Congress May 6, 1822. Trade by unscrupulous individuals flourished though the US Government enacted several regulation measures. Pressure of immigrants wanting to settle on Indian land increased and Indian tribes sought resolution on title and real estate issues with the Supreme Court based on their status as a foreign nation. The Marshall Trilogy Decisions clarified the status of the Indian nations in respect to the United States. With increased litigation and policy in Indian affairs Secretary of War John C Calhoun created the Bureau of Indian Affairs within the War Department March 11, 1824. The issue of Indian Removal increased as Georgia pressed the federal government to hold to its promise of April 24, 1802, in which the United States had agreed to extinguish the Indian land titles in the state as soon as it could be done peaceably and on reasonable terms in exchange for the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s western land claims. President James Monroe believed that the land belonged to the Indians by binding treaties. He personally did not agree with GeorgiaÃ¢â¬â¢s claim but did propose a voluntary removal policy as the best solution in a letter to Congress January 27, 1825. The issue did not go away; the rich farm lands of the Cherokee and gold in the Georgia hills fueled the removal movement. President Andrew Jackson, an infamous Indian fighter, in his First Annual Address to Congress in December of 1829 let it be known that he was firmly committed to the removal of the eastern tribes to a region west of the Mississippi River. On May 28, 1830 The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress after months of bitter debate not only in Congress but in the press. This act did not authorize enforced removal of any Indians, but merely gave the President power to initiate land exchanges with Indian nations residing within the states or territories. However the Indians chose not to move and force was necessary. The Cherokee population numbered in the thousands and a gradual removal was planned; but when gold was discovered on Cherokee land the removal was hastened. During the autumn and winter of 1838 the last of the eastern tribes were rounded up and detained in concentration camps before being forced marched west. This March which took the life of one in four Indians is commonly referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Trail of Tears. Ã¢â¬ During this period the United States was engaged in a civil war that tested the Union. Its military might was improved and after the civil war the government used this might to control the increased Indian hostilities in the West. Manifest Destiny seemed confirmed as a basic truth and the fate of the Plains Indians was secured with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railway May 10, 1869 in Promontory Point, Utah. The removal and relocation had tremendous consequences for many of the eastern tribes. The Choctaw, Cherokee, and Creeks were removed to Oklahoma along with numerous other tribes. Their physical and ecological environment was different. The land was unfamiliar and they were forced to live with other tribes that could not speak their language or understand their customs and traditions; some of these were natural enemies. Hunters and gathers had to become farmers. They were often short-changed by the unscrupulous traders increasing their dependence on the United States Government for subsistence. These tribes lost their autonomy as the Bureau of Indian Affairs replaced their council governments. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was more concerned with the assimilation of Indians and less interested in preserving the traditional way of life of Indians. Boarding schools were built to educate the children in the white dominant culture. Traditions and knowledge of the homeland and culture were kept alive by elders secretly. Many of the removed eastern tribes adopted Christianity through forced acculturation via the education of the children. The Plains Indians were forced to submit to reservation life as the buffalo, their means of subsistence, was eradicated largely in part by the railroad industry. By 1870 much of what is referred to now as the Continental Forty-Eight was dominated by the white man. The Sioux, Cheyenne, and Apache tribes would continue to struggle for another twenty years but the railroad and the loss of the buffalo marked the end of the second period. Next was the beginning of a third period of Native American relations with the United States Government, one of forced assimilation. This period began with the end of the more infamous Indian wars and the capture, surrender, or death of such notable personalities: Cochise and Geronimo of the Apaches, Little Wolf and Dull Knife of the Northern Cheyenne, and Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Sitting Bull and Black Elk of the Sioux. Nothing incensed the American attitude toward the Native Indian as the defeat (massacre) of General George Custer and his troops at Little Bighorn Creek. The United States Army, thirsting for revenge, the country north and west of the Black Hills, killing Indians wherever they could be found, Though Indian military resistance had be contained, the massacre of 230 Sioux at Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Reservation Dec. 28, 1890 marked the end of Indian independence. The US quit making treaties with Indians because it was viewed as an impediment to the assimilation of Indians. Because of humanitarian attacks upon the treaty system and the objections of the House of Representatives to the concentration of authority for dealing with the Indians in the hands of the Senate through its treaty-making power, Congress in 1871, in an obscure rider to the Indian appropriation bill, outlawed further treaty making with Indian tribes. Shortly thereafter the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Francis A. Walker, assigned Indian agencies to religious societies primarily to advance the moral and religious character of the Indians in November 1872. By doing so the US government was removed as the initial contact. The political nomination to the office of agent was removed and placed in the hands to those interested only in good will. In essence Indian tribes had no forum of direct interaction with the US Government. The Dawes Act of 1887 reflected the forced assimilation views of those who would reform Indian Policy. This act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved themselves like good white settlers, they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship in twenty-five years. Congress via the Indian citizenship Act, June 2, 1924 granted citizenship to all Indians born within the United States who were not yet citizens. Since war, disease, and starvation reduced Indian populations, the excess reservation land that was not allotted was reacquired by the US Government and sold to railroads and white settlers. The federal government allocated the proceeds from the sale of these lands to be used to educate and civilize the native people. This period of assimilation and allotment affected the lives of Native Americans more than any other period. The violent conflicts between the Indian tribes and the US military reduced tribal populations. The termination of treaties reduced tribal status to something less than nation status. By not having treaty making power tribes lost effective negotiation power with the US Government. The Dawes Act served to destroy both the reservation system and tribal organization. The Dawes Act tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians by making them farmers. The Dawes Act removed nearly fifty percent of Native American land from Indian tribes and accelerated the already rapid loss of traditional Indian culture. The religious controlled agencies were instrumental in separating the children from their tribes, teaching these children English and indoctrinating them with white values and customs. For the next fifty years The Dawes Act served as the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s official Indian policy.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Making Sense of Since Making Sense of Since Making Sense of Since By Maeve Maddox Sometimes a word that is clear in one context, may create ambiguity in another. Consider the following excerpt from a professional newspaper review of Hotel for Dogs. The story follows 16-year-old Andi (Emma Roberts) and her 11-year-old brother Bruce (Jake T. Austin) who, since the death of their parents, have lived in five foster homes over two years. Each move is challenging as they have to find ways to smuggle their charming Jack Russell terrier Friday, a member of their family since happier times, into each new household. If you havent seen the film, can you tell from this paragraph if the children had the dog before their parents died? Dont study it. Just base your impression on one quick reading. The first time I read it, I thought it meant that theyd had the dog before the parents died, but as I went on with the review, I began to wonder if the children had acquired the dog after being sent into foster care. In both phrases, the word since is a preposition. The OED gives two meanings for since as a preposition: 1. Ever or continuously from (a specified time, etc.) till now. 2. During the period between (a specified time) and now; at some time subsequent to or after. OED In the phrase since the death of their parents, the since marks a specific starting point. In the phrase since happier times, the time period is ambiguous. This since could, like the first since, mark a starting point subsequent to the happy times enjoyed with their parents, or it could indicate an earlier starting point, during the happy times. I havent seen the film, so to figure out the writers intended meaning, I googled (Oh, dear. I made a Google search of) They had a dog named Friday and found this refreshingly unambiguous statement in a review written by a high school senior: When their parents were still alive they had a dog named Friday and after their parents passed away they kept the dog Janeane White Not every reader would have had difficulty with this paragraph, but at least one did. And if one reader stumbles, its likely that others will. To avoid confusion, its probably a good idea for a writer to avoid using the same word twice in the same paragraph, especially words that have more than one meaning, however slight the difference. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Words for Facial ExpressionsSelect vs. SelectedList of Prefixes and Suffixes and their Meanings
Monday, March 2, 2020
Biography of Jean Baptiste Lamarck Early Life and Education Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Northern France on August 1, 1744. He was the youngest of eleven children born to Philippe Jacques de Monet de La Marck and Marie-FranÃ §oise de Fontaines de Chuignolles, a noble but not rich family. Most men in Lamarcks family went into the military, including his father and older brothers. However, Jeans father pushed him toward a career in the Church, so Lamarck went to a Jesuit college in the late 1750s. When his father died in 1760, Lamarck rode off to a battle in Germany and joined the French army. He quickly rose through the military ranks and became a commanding Lieutenant over troops stationed in Monaco. Unfortunately, Lamarck was injured during a game he was playing with his troops and after surgery made the injury worse, he was decommissioned. He then went off to study medicine with his brother, but decided along the way that the natural world, and particularly botany, were a better choice for him. Biography In 1778 he published Flore franÃ §aise, a book that contained the first dichotomous key that helped identify different species based on contrasting characteristics. His work earned him the title of Botanist to the King which was given to him by Comte de Buffon in 1781. He was able to then travel around Europe and collect plant samples and data for his work. Turning his attention to the animal kingdom, Lamarck was the first to use the term invertebrate to describe animals without backbones. He began collecting fossils and studying all sorts of simple species. Unfortunately, he became completely blind before he finished his writings on the subject, but he was assisted by his daughter so he could publish his works on zoology. His most well-known contributions to zoology were rooted in the Theory of Evolution. Lamarck was the first to claim that humans had evolved from a lower species. In fact, his hypothesis stated that all living things built up from the most simple all the way up to humans. He believed that new species spontaneously generated and body parts or organs that were not used would just shrivel up and go away. His contemporary, Georges Cuvier, quickly denounced this idea and worked hard to promote his own nearly opposite ideas. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first scientists to publish the idea that adaptation occurred in species to help them better survive in the environment. He went on to assert that these physical changes were then passed down to the next generation. While this is now known to be incorrect, Charles Darwin used these ideas when forming his theory of Natural Selection. Personal Life Jean-Baptiste Lamarck had a total of eight children with three different wives. His first wife, Marie Rosalie Delaporte, gave him six children before she died in 1792. However, they did not marry until she was on her deathbed. His second wife, Charlotte Victoire Reverdy gave birth to two children but died two years after they were married. His final wife, Julie Mallet, did not have any children before she died in 1819. It is rumored that Lamarck may have had a fourth wife, but it has not been confirmed. However, it is clear that he had one deaf son and another son who was declared clinically insane. His two living daughters took care of him on his deathbed and were left poor. Only one living son was making a good living as an engineer and had children at the time of Lamarcks death.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Traumatic Brain Injury in the military - Essay Example According to DHCC (2010), "TBI is often associated with severe multiple trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or undiagnosed concussions and screening patients who are at risk for a TBI is important in order to ensure that TBIs are identified and appropriately treated." In this essay, TBI among military personnel will be discussed briefly. Any insult to the brain due to some form of external force is known as traumatic brain injury. According to DHCC (2010), "A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the function of the brain." The injury can lead to any sequelae like altered consciousness, impaired cognition, delirium and impaired physical functioning. These changes can lead to various problems with thinking, language, movement, concentration and even sensation. TBI can also lead to other emotional and personality changes, tiredness, depression, violence, irritability, disinhibited behavior and lack of ability to carry out day-to-day activities. Among the military personnel, those who are on active duty are at more risk of suffering TBI when compared to their civilian peers. In general, statistics show that men between 18- 24 years of age are at increased risk of TBI when compared to other age groups (DVBIC, 2009). It is also important to note than TBI can occur even during daily activities, especially when they are unusual. Military personnel frequently enjoy certain non-service activities like climbing mountains, parachuting, riding motor cycles and car racing. These activities may be a part of their daily physical training. These services are basically intended to increase their quality of life, however; they are also fraught with increased risk of TBI (DVBIC, 2009). Spinal cord injuries and TBI account for about 25 percent of casualities related to combat (DVBIC, 2009). The most common type of combat-related injury is concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. In current scen ario, use of protective devices like Kelvar helmets and various types of advanced body armours have infact, minimized the incidence of TBI and have saved the lives of many military personnel. But these gadgets do not protect the frontal aspects of the head, the facial parts and also the spinal cord. Thus, though advanced medical care helps in improving survival rates, the long terms effects of the injuries continue to haunt the personnel (DVBIC, 2009). TBIs in military operations are often complex and can be of multiple types. A blast can cause sudden both external and internal injuries. It can cause contusions and concussions in the brain. Flying fragments of the blast can cause tear of various structures and lead to various sequelae. The various signs and symptoms related to TBI depend on the extent and area of injury. In war, poly trauma can occur and due to other organ damage and injury to other parts of the body, it is often difficult to predict the extent of brain injury. Whil e most symptoms are obvious immediately after the injury, some may manifest a few days or even a few weeks after injury. Some patients may present with simple problems like confabulation wherein the individual cooks up stories in gaps of memory (Kennard, 2006). In mild TBI, there may be no obvious changes on CT or MRI scan. However, the patient may present with few symptoms like blurring of